The present commentary brings to the debate the gender inequalities in research and scientific publication in the international and national scenario, with emphasis on the area of public health in Brazil, and presents proposals for the monitoring and overcoming of such inequalities. Scientific journals play a relevant role in promoting gender equity in research and publication. Women are the majority in the collective health area in Brazil, however, they are represented to a lesser extent among beneficiaries of productivity grants in research. It is recommended that journals in the area monitor the distribution of sexes among authors of submitted, rejected, published and invited articles, as well as among reviewers and members of editorial staff. In addition, journals have important potential for discussion, as well as proposing, disseminating and promoting initiatives aimed at ensuring equitable female participation in science.
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